Preparing Your Property for Sale

This guide was prepared this guide to assist sellers of houses to prepare their property for sale. the Real Estate markets around the world seem to be contracting so it is essential properties are well prepared and presented to maximise the sale price 新宿 タワーマンション,

Look at your home as a prospective purchaser would. If you are buying a replacement home then it shouldn’t be hard to see your home as a buyer would. A great first impression could make the difference between selling and not selling. An unkempt yard with garbage, messy gardens and the front door in a state of disrepair will not leave a good impression.

Below is a list that will help you ensure the property looks the best it can.

1. Clean rubbish away –

This is usually easy to do and is a critical element in the presentation of your property.

2. Landscaping –

Landscaping of the garden to tidy up the exterior and compliment the house is a great impression builder. This does not mean major reconstruction.

3. Painting –

The quick lick of a brush on fences and exterior walls can make a great impression. If you can’t paint then at least wash them.

4. Tidy up and wash –

Clean and organised looking homes are far more appealing to buyers. Clear windows, clean carpets, dust-free blinds, a clean kitchen paying attention to the sink and stovetop, clean bathrooms and remember to use deodorisers to remove odours (smoking, cooking etc),…

5. Repairs –

Attend to repairs of plumbing, general property hardware like windows, doors and cupboards and also screens if possible for good effect.

6. Create openness –

Box and store any excess belongings.

7. Remove clutter –

Remove most items from shelves, cabinet tops and mantle pieces to remove clutter and create a feeling and sense of space.

8. A bright home is cheery.

To create a warm and inviting feeling to ensure the home is well lit with natural light and if needed switch on lights as required and, weather permitting, open windows and doors to build that spacious feeling.

9. Smells should be masked with nice scents –

Make sure the place smells like roses or something like bread or a cake baking. Nice aromas are often the factor that causes a buyer to trigger positive emotions and memories. Freshly crushed mint is also a winner.

10. Mould and moisture –

Ensure potentially moist areas have great ventilation to help remove moisture and mould which is an indication of moisture. As a buyer, you wouldn’t be impressed with a house exhibiting evidence of mould and neither will your buyers. Wipe any mouldy areas with bleach to kill any spores.

11. Outdoors –

Ensure children’s and pets toys are hidden away or neatly stored. It’s also recommended that you take washing off the line and remove pegs from the clotheslines.

Take on board these easy to do tips and impress your buyers. Remember the last thing they will usually see is what they saw as they entered. You want your prospects to make an offer so make sure you make a first-class impression.

Life Insurance – Bargain Life Insurance When You Take Out A Pension Policy

At last, a real-life insurance bargain – but as always there are strings attached!

If you take out a new pension policy after 6 th April 2006 and within the same premium payments for life insurance cover, then you can use your pension contribution tax allowance to reduce the cost of your life insurance. This means if you’re a standard rate taxpayer, you’ll receive 22% tax relief on your life insurance premiums and relief at 40% if you’re a higher rate taxpayer.

The combined premium you pay for your pension and life insurance will automatically be reduced by 22% by the pension provider. But if you’re a higher rate taxpayer, you’ll need to claim the balance to bring your relief up to 40%, on your year-end self-assessment tax return.

But there are three strings attached Makler Kassel :

o The pension company must also provide your life insurance and be paid as one combined premium.

o The current value of your pension fund plus the sum insured by your life insurance policy must not exceed £1.5 million.

o Your combined annual premium for your pension and life insurance must not exceed £215,000.

In practice, the savings on your life insurance will not be quite as big as you might otherwise expect. Its because the underlying premium for the life insurance cover will be a bit more expensive than a stand-alone policy with the same company and, in all probability, the insurance company providing your pension policy won’t be the cheapest on the life insurance market. Furthermore, you can’t buy a combined pension and life insurance policy online – so you’ll miss out on the Internet’s discounted life insurance prices.

Nevertheless, if you’re a higher rate taxpayer, your tax savings are bound to guarantee that your life cover is a real bargain! If you’re a standard rate taxpayer you’d be wise to do a little homework. Before you buy, you should get an online quote for life insurance to compare against the price you’d pay if you bought it alongside your new pension.

There are some other points you also need to know. Firstly we know you’ll ask whether you can convert your existing life insurance policy into a combined pension purchase. The answer is no! The tax relief is only available if, from the outset, you take a pension and life insurance policy as one combined purchase.

Secondly, the life insurance cover can only apply to the owner of the pension policy – you can’t add in anyone else on the life insurance policy. Joint policies aren’t available as a pension/life insurance package.

And whilst many people also add critical illness cover to their life insurance, this is not possible when you have a pension/life insurance package. Critical illness cover pays out a tax-free lump sum if you are diagnosed with a specified serious illness which is listed on your policy. If you want critical illness cover, you’ll have to buy a normal stand-a-lone policy.

Finally, if you’re going to buy a pension life insurance package and replace your existing life cover, a few words of warning. You’ll be older now than when you first took out your existing life insurance policy. This means that the premium rate on your new cover will be higher. Furthermore, the premium for your new policy could be loaded if you’ve developed any medical conditions since taking out your original life insurance. Remember, even if you’ve simply put on weight, your premium could be loaded. In extreme medical cases, the proposed insurer might even totally refuse to provide life cover. To avoid the possibility of being caught without life insurance cover or being forced to accept a more expensive premium, you should obtain written confirmation from your pension company that they will insure you. You then need to compare their proposed cost, net of tax, with your existing premium.

Health Savings Accounts – An American Innovation in Health Insurance

The term “health insurance” is commonly used in the United States to describe any program that helps pay for medical expenses, weather through privately purchased insurance, social insurance or a non-insurance social welfare program funded by the government. Synonyms for this usage include “health coverage,” “health care coverage” and “health benefits” and “medical insurance.” In a more technical sense, the term is used to describe any form of insurance that protects against injury or illness.

In America, Makler Kassel the health insurance industry has changed rapidly during the last few decades. In the 1970’s most people who had health insurance had indemnity insurance. Indemnity insurance is often called fee-for-service. It is the traditional health insurance in which the medical provider (usually a doctor or hospital) is paid a fee for each service provided to the patient covered under the policy. An important category associated with the indemnity plans is that of consumer-driven health care (CDHC). Consumer-directed health plans allow individuals and families to have greater control over their health care, including when and how they access care, what types of care they receive and how much they spend on health care services.

These plans are however associated with higher deductibles that the insured have to pay from their pocket before they can claim insurance money. Consumer-driven health care plans include Health Reimbursement Plans (HRAs), Flexible Spending Accounts (FSAs), high deductible health plans (HDHps), Archer Medical Savings Accounts (MSAs) and Health Savings Accounts (HSAs). Of these, the Health Savings Accounts are the most recent and they have witnessed rapid growth during the last decade.


A Health Savings Account (HSA) is tax-advantaged medical savings account available to taxpayers in the United States. The funds contributed to the account are not subject to federal income tax at the time of deposit. These may be used to pay for qualified medical expenses at any time without federal tax liability.

Another feature is that the funds contributed to Health Savings Account roll over and accumulate year over year if not spent. These can be withdrawn by the employees at the time of retirement without any tax liabilities. Withdrawals for qualified expenses and interest earned are also not subject to federal income taxes. According to the U.S. Treasury Office, ‘A Health Savings Account is an alternative to traditional health insurance; it is a savings product that offers a different way for consumers to pay for their health care.

HSA’s enable you to pay for current health expenses and save for future qualified medical and retiree health expenses on a tax-free basis.’ Thus the Health Savings Account is an effort to increase the efficiency of the American health care system and to encourage people to be more responsible and prudent towards their health care needs. It falls in the category of consumer-driven health care plans.

Origin of Health Savings Account

The Health Savings Account was established under the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act passed by the U.S. Congress in June 2003, by the Senate in July 2003 and signed by President Bush on December 8, 2003.

Eligibility –

The following individuals are eligible to open a Health Savings Account –

– Those who are covered by a High Deductible Health Plan (HDHP).
– Those not covered by other health insurance plans.
– Those not enrolled in Medicare4.

Also, there are no income limits on who may contribute to a HAS and there is no requirement of having earned income to contribute to a HAS. However, HAS’s can’t be set up by those who are dependent on someone else’s tax return. Also, HSA’s cannot be set up independently by children.

What is a High Deductible Health Plan (HDHP)?

Enrollment in a High Deductible Health Plan (HDHP) is a necessary qualification for anyone wishing to open a Health Savings Account. The HDHPs got a boost by the Medicare Modernization Act which introduced the HSAs. A High Deductible Health Plan is a health insurance plan which has a certain deductible threshold. This limit must be crossed before the insured person can claim insurance money. It does not cover first dollar medical expenses. So an individual has to himself pay the initial expenses that are called out-of-pocket costs.

In several HDHPs costs of immunization and preventive health care are excluded from the deductible which means that the individual is reimbursed for them. HDHPs can be taken both by individuals (self-employed as well as employed) and employers. In 2008, HDHPs are being offered by insurance companies in America with deductibles ranging from a minimum of $1,100 for Self and $2,200 for Self and Family coverage. The maximum amount of out-of-pocket limits for HDHPs is $5,600 for self and $11,200 for Self and Family enrollment. These deductible limits are called IRS limits as they are set by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). In HDHPs the relation between the deductibles and the premium paid by the insured is inversely proportional i.e. higher the deductible, lower the premium and vice versa. The major purported advantages of HDHPs are that they will a) lower health care costs by causing patients to be more cost-conscious, and b) make insurance premiums more affordable for the uninsured. The logic is that when the patients are fully covered (i.e. have health plans with low deductibles), they tend to be less health-conscious and also less cost-conscious when going for treatment.

Opening a Health Savings Account

An individual can sign up for HSAs with banks, credit unions, insurance companies and other approved companies. However not all insurance companies offer HSAqualified health insurance plans so it is important to use an insurance company that offers this type of qualified insurance plan. The employer may also set up a plan for the employees. However, the account is always owned by the individual. Direct online enrollment in HSA-qualified health insurance is available in all states except Hawaii, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New Jersey, New York, Rhode Island, Vermont and Washington.

Contributions to the Health Savings Account

Contributions to HSAs can be made by an individual who owns the account, by an employer or by any other person. When made by the employer, the contribution is not included in the income of the employee. When made by an employee, it is treated as exempted from federal tax. For 2008, the maximum amount that can be contributed (and deducted) to an HSA from all sources is:

$2,900 (self-only coverage)

$5,800 (family coverage)

These limits are set by the U.S. Congress through statutes and they are indexed annually for inflation. For individuals above 55 years of age, there is a special catch up provision that allows them to deposit an additional $800 for 2008 and $900 for 2009. The actual maximum amount an individual can contribute also depends on the number of months he is covered by an HDHP (pro-rated basis) as of the first day of a month. For eg If you have family HDHP coverage from January 1, 2008, until June 30, 2008, then cease having HDHP coverage, you are allowed an HSA contribution of 6/12 of $5,800, or $2,900 for 2008. If you have family HDHP coverage from January 1, 2008, until June 30, 2008, and have self-only HDHP coverage from July 1, 2008, to December 31, 2008, you are allowed an HSA contribution of 6/12 x $5,800 plus 6/12 of $2,900, or $4,350 for 2008. If an individual opens an HDHP on the first day of a month, then he can contribute to HSA on the first day itself. However, if he/she opens an account on any other day than the first, then he can contribute to the HSA from the next month onwards. Contributions can be made as late as April 15 of the following year. Contributions to the HSA over the contribution limits must be withdrawn by the individual or be subject to an excise tax. The individual must pay income tax on the excess withdrawn amount.

Contributions by the Employer

The employer can make contributions to the employee’s HAS account under a salary reduction plan known as a Section 125 plan. It is also called a cafeteria plan. The contributions made under the cafeteria plan are made on a pre-tax basis i.e. they are excluded from the employee’s income. The employer must contribute on a comparable basis. Comparable contributions are contributions to all HSAs of an employer which are 1) the same amount or 2) the same percentage of the annual deductible. However, part-time employees who work for less than 30 hours a week can be treated separately. The employer can also categorize employees into those who opt for self coverage only and those who opt for family coverage. The employer can automatically make contributions to the HSAs on behalf of the employee unless the employee specifically chooses not to have such contributions by the employer.

Withdrawals from the HSAs

The HSA is owned by the employee and him/she can make qualified expenses from it whenever required. He/She also decides how much to contribute to it, how much to withdraw for qualified expenses, which company will hold the account and what type of investments will be made to grow the account. Another feature is that the funds remain in the account and roll over from year to year. There is no use it or lose it rules.

The HSA participants do not have to obtain advance approval from their HSA trustee or their medical insurer to withdraw funds, and the funds are not subject to income taxation if made for ‘qualified medical expenses’. Qualified medical expenses include costs for services and items covered by the health plan but subject to cost-sharing such as a deductible and coinsurance, or co-payments, as well as many other expenses not covered under medical plans, such as dental, vision and chiropractic care; durable medical equipment such as eyeglasses and hearing aids; and transportation expenses related to medical care. Nonprescription, over-the-counter medications are also eligible. However, the qualified medical expense must be incurred on or after the HSA was established.

Tax-free distributions can be taken from the HSA for the qualified medical expenses of the person covered by the HDHP, the spouse (even if not covered) of the individual and any dependent (even if not covered) of the individual.12 The HSA account can also be used to pay previous year’s qualified expenses subject to the condition that those expenses were incurred after the HSA was set up. The individual must preserve the receipts for expenses met from the HSA as they may be needed to prove that the withdrawals from the HSA were made for qualified medical expenses and not otherwise used.

Also, the individual may have to produce the receipts before the insurance company to prove that the deductible limit was met. If a withdrawal is made for unqualified medical expenses, then the amount withdrawn is considered taxable (it is added to the individual’s income) and is also subject to an additional 10 per cent penalty. Normally the money also cannot be used for paying medical insurance premiums. However, in certain circumstances, exceptions are allowed.

These are –

1) to pay for any health plan coverage while receiving federal or state unemployment benefits.

2) COBRA continuation coverage after leaving employment with a company that offers health insurance coverage.

3) Qualified long-term care insurance.

4) Medicare premiums and out-of-pocket expenses, including deductibles, co-pays, and coinsurance for Part A (hospital and inpatient services), Part B (physician and outpatient services), Part C (Medicare HMO and PPO plans) and Part D (prescription drugs).

However, if an individual dies, becomes disabled or reaches the age of 65, then withdrawals from the Health Savings Account are considered exempted from income tax and additional 10 per cent penalty irrespective of the purpose for which those withdrawals are made. There are different methods through which funds can be withdrawn from the HSAs. Some HSAs provide account holders with debit cards, some with cheques and some have options for a reimbursement process similar to medical insurance.

Growth of HSAs

Ever since the Health Savings Accounts came into being in January 2004, there has been a phenomenal growth in their numbers. From around 1 million enrollees in March 2005, the number has grown to 6.1 million enrollees in January 2008.14 This represents an increase of 1.6 million since January 2007, 2.9 million since January 2006 and 5.1 million since March 2005. This growth has been visible across all segments. However, the growth in large groups and small groups has been much higher than in the individual category. According to the projections made by the U.S. Treasury Department, the number of HSA policyholders will increase to 14 million by 2010. These 14 million policies will provide cover to 25 to 30 million U.S. citizens.

In the Individual Market, 1.5 million people were covered by HSA/HDHPs purchased as on January 2008. Based on the number of covered lives, 27 per cent of newly purchased individual policies (defined as those purchased during the most recent full month or quarter) were enrolled in HSA/HDHP coverage. In the small group market, enrollment stood at 1.8 million as of January 2008. In this group, 31 per cent of all new enrollments were in the HSA/HDHP category. The large group category had the largest enrollment with 2.8 million enrollees as of January 2008. In this category, six per cent of all new enrollments were in the HSA/HDHP category.

Benefits of HSAs

The proponents of HSAs envisage several benefits from them. First and foremost it is believed that as they have a high deductible threshold, the insured will be more health-conscious. Also, they will be more cost-conscious. The high deductibles will encourage people to be more careful about their health and health care expenses and will make them shop for bargains and be more vigilant against excesses in the health care industry.

This, it is believed, will reduce the growing cost of health care and increase the efficiency of the health care system in the United States. HSA-eligible plans typically provide enrollee decision support tools that include, to some extent, information on the cost of health care services and the quality of health care providers. Experts suggest that reliable information about the cost of particular health care services and the quality of specific health care providers would help enrollees become more actively engaged in making health care purchasing decisions. These tools may be provided by health insurance carriers to all health insurance plan enrollees, but are likely to be more important to enrollees of HSA-eligible plans who have a greater financial incentive to make informed decisions about the quality and costs of health care providers and services.

It is believed that lower premiums associated with HSAs/HDHPs will enable more people to enrol for medical insurance. This will mean that lower-income groups who do not have access to medicare will be able to open HSAs. No doubt higher deductibles are associated with HSA eligible HDHPs, but it is estimated that tax savings under HSAs and lower premiums will make them less expensive than other insurance plans. The funds put in the HSA can be rolled over from year to year. There is no use it or lose it rules. This leads to a growth in savings of the account holder. The funds can be accumulated tax-free for future medical expenses if the holder so desires. Also, the savings in the HSA can be grown through investments.

The nature of such investments is decided by the insured. The earnings on savings in the HSA are also exempt from income tax. The holder can withdraw his savings in the HSA after turning 65 years old without paying any taxes or penalties. The account holder has complete control over his/her account. He/She is the owner of the account right from its inception.

A person can withdraw money as and when required without any gatekeeper. Also, the owner decides how much to put in his/her account, how much to spend and how much to save for the future. The HSAs are portable. This means that if the holder changes his/her job, becomes unemployed or moves to another location, he/she can still retain the account.

Also if the account holder so desires he can transfer his Health Saving Account from one managing agency to another. Thus portability is an advantage of HSAs. Another advantage is that most HSA plans provide first-dollar coverage for preventive care. This is true of virtually all HSA plans offered by large employers and over 95% of the plans offered by small employers. It was also true of over half (59%) of the plans which were purchased by individuals.

All of the plans offering first-dollar preventive care benefits included annual physicals, immunizations, well-baby and well-child care, mammograms and Pap tests; 90% included prostate cancer screenings and 80% included colon cancer screenings. Some analysts believe that HSAs are more beneficial for the young and healthy as they do not have to pay frequent out of pocket costs. On the other hand, they have to pay lower premiums for HDHPs which help them meet unforeseen contingencies.

Health Savings Accounts are also advantageous for employers. The benefits of choosing a health Savings Account over a traditional health insurance plan can directly affect the bottom line of an employer’s benefit budget. For instance, Health Savings Accounts are dependent on a high deductible insurance policy, which lowers the premiums of the employee’s plan. Also, all contributions to the Health Savings Account are pre-tax, thus lowering the gross payroll and reducing the amount of taxes the employer must pay.

Criticism of HSAs

The opponents of Health Savings Accounts contend that they would do more harm than good to America’s health insurance system. Some consumer organizations, such as Consumers Union, and many medical organizations, such as the American Public Health Association, have rejected HSAs because, in their opinion, they benefit only healthy, younger people and make the health care system more expensive for everyone else. According to Stanford economist Victor Fuchs, “The main effect of putting more of it on the consumer is to reduce the social redistributive element of insurance.

Some others believe that HSAs remove healthy people from the insurance pool and it makes premiums rise for everyone left. HSAs encourage people to look out for themselves more and spread the risk around less. Another concern is that the money people save in HSAs will be inadequate. Some people believe that HSAs do not allow for enough savings to cover costs. Even the person who contributes the maximum and never takes any money out would not be able to cover health care costs in retirement if inflation continues in the health care industry.

Opponents of HSAs, also include distinguished figures like state Insurance Commissioner John Garamendi, who called them a “dangerous prescription” that will destabilize the health insurance marketplace and make things even worse for the uninsured. Another criticism is that they benefit the rich more than the poor. Those who earn more will be able to get bigger tax breaks than those who earn less. Critics point out that higher deductibles along with insurance premiums will take away a large share of the earnings of the low-income groups. Also, lower-income groups will not benefit substantially from tax breaks as they are already paying little or no taxes. On the other hand tax breaks on savings in HSAs and on further income from those HSA savings will cost billions of dollars of tax money to the exchequer.

The Treasury Department has estimated HSAs would cost the government $156 billion over a decade. Critics say that this could rise substantially. Several surveys have been conducted regarding the efficacy of the HSAs and some have found that the account holders are not particularly satisfied with the HSA scheme and many are even ignorant about the working of the HSAs. One such survey conducted in 2007 of American employees by the human resources consulting firm Towers Perrin showed satisfaction with account-based health plans (ABHPs) was low. People were not happy with them in general compared with people with more traditional health care. Respondents said they were not comfortable with the risk and did not understand how it works.

According to the Commonwealth Fund, early experience with HAS eligible high-deductible health plans reveals low satisfaction, high out of- pocket costs and cost-related access problems. Another survey conducted with the Employee Benefits Research Institute found that people enrolled in HSA-eligible high-deductible health plans were much less satisfied with many aspects of their health care than adults in more comprehensive plans People in these plans allocate substantial amounts of income to their health care, especially those who have poorer health or lower incomes. The survey also found that adults in high-deductible health plans are far more likely to delay or avoid getting needed care, or to skip medications, because of the cost. Problems are particularly pronounced among those with poorer health or lower incomes.

Political leaders have also been vocal about their criticism of the HSAs. Congressman John Conyers, Jr. issued the following statement criticizing the HSAs “The President’s health care plan is not about covering the uninsured, making health insurance affordable, or even driving down the cost of health care. Its real purpose is to make it easier for businesses to dump their health insurance burden onto workers, give tax breaks to the wealthy, and boost the profits of banks and financial brokers. The health care policies concocted at the behest of special interests do nothing to help the average American. In many cases, they can make health care even more inaccessible.” A report of the U.S. governments Accountability office, published on April 1, 2008, says that the rate of enrollment in the HSAs is greater for higher-income individuals than for lower-income ones.

A study titled “Health Savings Accounts and High Deductible Health Plans: Are They an Option for Low-Income Families? By Catherine Hoffman and Jennifer Tolbert which was sponsored by the Kaiser Family Foundation reported the following key findings regarding the HSAs:

a) Premiums for HSA-qualified health plans may be lower than for traditional insurance, but these plans shift more of the financial risk to individuals and families through higher deductibles.

b) Premiums and out-of-pocket costs for HSA-qualified health plans would consume a substantial portion of a low-income family’s budget.

c) Most low-income individuals and families do not face high enough tax liability to benefit in a significant way from tax deductions associated with HSAs.

d) People with chronic conditions, disabilities, and others with high-cost medical needs may face even greater out-of-pocket costs under HSA-qualified health plans.

e) Cost-sharing reduces the use of health care, especially primary and preventive services, and low-income individuals and those who are sicker are particularly sensitive to cost-sharing increases.

f) Health savings accounts and high deductible plans are unlikely to substantially increase health insurance coverage among the uninsured.

Choosing a Health Plan

Despite the advantages offered by the HSA, it may not be suitable for everyone. While choosing an insurance plan, an individual must consider the following factors:

1. The premiums to be paid.
2. Coverage/benefits are available under the scheme.
3. Various exclusions and limitations.
4. Portability.
5. Out-of-pocket costs like coinsurance, co-pays, and deductibles.
6. Access to doctors, hospitals, and other providers.
7. How much and sometimes how one pays for care.
8. Any existing health issue or physical disability.
9. Type of tax savings available.

The plan you choose should according to your requirements and financial ability.


1 Questions and Answers about Health Insurance- A Consumer Guide’ published jointly by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)and America’s Health Insurance Plans (AHIP)
3 2002 AHIP Survey of Health Insurance Plans
4 “How High Is Too High? Implications of High-Deductible Health Plans” Davis, Karen; Michelle Doty and Alice Ho. The Commonwealth Fund, April 2005
6 HSA/HDHP CENSUS 2008 by Hannah Yoo, Center for Policy and Research, America’s Health Insurance Plans
7″HEALTH SAVINGS ACCOUNTS Early Enrollee Experiences with Accounts and Eligible Health Plans” John E. Dicken Director, Health Care.
8 Thomas Wilder and Hannah Yoo, “A Survey of Preventive Benefits in Health Savings Account (HSA)Plans, July 2007,” America’s Health Insurance Plans, November 2007
9 Gladwell, Malcolm, “The Moral Hazard Myth”, The New Yorker (29-08-2005)
10 2008 Benchmark Survey HAS Bank
11. Employer Health Benefits 2007 Annual Survey, Kaiser Family Foundation
12. Health Savings Accounts and High Deductible Health Plans: Are They An Option for Low-Income Families?Catherine Hoffman and Jennifer Tolbert for Kaiser Family Foundation, October 2006
13. Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003

I am an ardent reader who also loves to write as well. I am an MBA with specialization in finance.

How To Make Your Own Cryptocurrency In 4 Easy Steps

Enough, there has been so much hullabaloo about the boom created by the virtual currencies that the internet has been overloaded with information on how you could earn more money by investing in these currencies. But did you ever think how cool it would be if you could create your cryptocurrency?

Never thought about it, right? It’s time to think because in this post we are going to provide you with a four-step guide on creating your cryptocurrency. Read through the post, and then see whether you can do it for yourself or not!

Step 1 – Community

No, you don’t have to build a community like you do when you plan to rule social media. The game is a little different here. You need to find a community of people that you think would buy your currency.

Once you identify a community, it becomes easier for you to cater to their needs and therefore you can work towards building a stable cryptocurrency rather than going haywire with what you want to achieve.

Remember, you are not here to be a part of the spectator sport – you are in it to win it. And, having a community of people who would want to invest in your currency is the best way to do it!

Step 2 – Code

The second important step is to code. You don’t necessarily have to be a master coder to create your cryptocurrency. There are plenty of open-source codes available out there which you can use.

You can even go ahead and hire professionals who can do the job for you. But when coding, do remember one thing – blatant copying is not going to lead you anywhere.

You need to bring some uniqueness in your currency to distinguish it from the ones that already exist. It has to be innovative enough to create ripples in the market. This is the reason just copying the code is not enough to be on top of the cryptocurrency game.

Step 3 – Miners

The third and the most important step in the process is to get some miners on board who will mine you’re making money with cryptocurrency.

What this means is that you need to have a certain set of people associated with you who can spread the word about your currency in the market. You need to have people who can raise awareness about your currency.

This will give you a head start. And, as they say – well begun is half done; miners can eventually lay the foundation of a successful voyage for your cryptocurrency in the ever-growing competition.

Step 4 – Marketing

The last thing you need to do as part of the job here is to connect with merchants who will eventually trade the virtual coins that you have built.

In simpler words, you need to market these coins in the battleground where real people would be interested to invest in them. And, this by no means is an easy feat.

You need to win their confidence by letting them know that you have something worthy to offer.

How can you begin with it? The best way to market your coins initially is to identify the target audience who knows what cryptocurrency is.

After all, there is no point in trying to market your stuff to people who don’t even know what cryptocurrency is.


So, you can see that building a successful cryptocurrency is more about having the awareness about market trends, and less about being a hardcore techie or an avant-garde coder.

If you have that awareness in you, then it is time to make a heyday while the sun shines in the cryptocurrency niche. Go ahead and plan to build your cryptocurrency by following these simple steps and see how it turns out for you!

Home Based Business – Visualisation Using a Dream Book

Have you ever considered using a Dream Book or a Visualization Board in your home-based business? When I first heard about a dream book buku mimpi 2d, I just thought it was a load of hogwash! I didn’t believe that photos and pictures of things I wanted could in any way help me to get them! I would just nod along when anyone told us to go and make a dream book, and then just not bother.

Then whilst I was attending a meeting about my home-based business, a lady stood up and began to talk to us about her dream book. This woman was on fire with a passion for her home business! While she showed us what she intended to do with the money she would make, her eyes were glowing, I swear! I knew instantly that she would succeed! You could just tell from the passion she had when she talked about her dreams. It was obvious that she would climb the mountains to achieve her dreams. And I guess everyone in the room took some tiny seed of a dream away from that lady and her dream book!

A short while later it was my birthday and I asked one of my daughters to buy me a beautiful deep pink book that I had seen that even tied with a ribbon. I didn’t go out looking for a book; I hadn’t even realised that I intended to start a dream book, but while I was browsing around a shop I saw it and thought straight away – my dream book! Amazing how the seed of an idea can be planted in your head, and start to grow sometime later!

Shortly afterwards, I began planning my book. My WHY was to be able to afford to let my husband leave his job! And that’s where I began, with photos of him and pictures of what he might be doing instead. But as I thought more about it, I realised that I already had a good idea of what I wanted to see in my dream book. Letting my mind wander around anything that made me happy, it was easy to start filling up my dream book!

This book is ongoing; it changes monthly. Now some of my dreams have started to appear in my life and I find I have more goals to add to my book. New hobbies I have discovered, that I want to spend time doing. And I am remembering long-forgotten dreams or wishes I had and perhaps gave up on earlier in my life. Now I am bringing out these dreams, re-examining them and adding them to my dream book if I still want them.

And don’t make the mistake of thinking its all about a new car, house or holiday. My dream book is full of how I can help my family, friends and charities. About how I can lead a better, more fulfilled and healthier life! Of course, money is important, but it is not the most important!

So don’t laugh off the idea of starting a dream book. Because you have pictures of your goals there in front of you, your mind accepts that and leads you towards your dreams. I know because it is slowly happening to me!! If you can visualise what you want out of life you can get it! Make it real!

5 Important Questions To Ask Your Lawyer About An Assault Charge

Assault charges are common across the United States. According to the FBI’s Uniform Crime Reports, 2011 saw 751,131 aggravated assaults occur in the United States. This does not include a large number of defendants charged with simple assault. No matter how it is classified, assault is a violent crime and is treated seriously by the American legal system. If you are charged with assault, seek legal counsel as soon as possible. When discussing the situation with your attorney, make sure you ask 5 important questions.

1. “What am I being charged with?” Legally, “assault” is a broad term which is used differently across the country. Generally, the battery usually requires some type of harmful or offensive contact while assault only requires an action that would put a reasonable person in fear of harmful or offensive contact. However, some statutes use the term assault interchangeably with battery and an assault charge may be a battery charge.

The distinction can have a profound effect on the defendant’s legal strategy. That’s where the services of a legal team are invaluable. If the statutory elements required some level of contact, the defendant can argue that the contact was not so harmful or offensive that it met the statutory language; or he or she may claim that the contact was accidental. If the statute requires intentional actions that would make the victim fearful, the defendant may claim that his or her actions did not rise to a level which would cause that to occur. The precise language of the relevant assault statute will dictate the available defences.

2. “Am I being charged with a felony or a misdemeanour?” Many jurisdictions divide assault into different categories. Depending upon the circumstances and the relevant statute, the crime may qualify as either a misdemeanour or a felony. Typically, simple assault without any serious injuries or the use of weapons will qualify as a misdemeanour. An attack in which the perpetrator threatens to use or does use any type of instrument, or where they cause serious bodily injury will qualify as a felony.

If the alleged offence is being charged as a felony, it is sometimes possible to get the charges reduced to a misdemeanour as a result of a plea deal. This is particularly true with assault charges. Being convicted of a felony strips the convicted party of certain constitutional rights and entitles employers to discriminate against them for the rest of their natural life. While a defendant may not wish to plead guilty, avoiding a felony conviction should be a top priority.

3. “How strong is the prosecution’s case?” Assault charges often involve sparse evidence. In some cases, the officers only collected statements from each party involved and decided to arrest everyone involved and let the courts sort it out. Many witness statements to assault charges involve an incomplete perspective of the situation; for example, eyewitnesses present after the fight started usually cannot tell what precipitated the allegedly unlawful conduct, which can be the central issue if any affirmative defences are raised.

Statements made by the parties involved will usually place all of the blame on the other party. If the police decide to arrest everyone without collecting evidence, defendants stand a reasonably good chance of having any subsequent charges dismissed, as defendants may raise an affirmative defence or even deny committing the assault altogether. If the case hinges upon one biased witness or the statements of other witnesses who cannot be located, a defence attorney may be able to get the case dismissed.

4. “Should I use an affirmative defence?” Assaults are rarely unprovoked, occurring for no reason. If you committed the actions that the prosecution believes constitute the crime of assault as a result of feeling threatened by the alleged victim, ask your lawyer about it. Self-defence is a common and valid defence to assault charges. Consent is another defence to some assault charges in some situations.

To claim self-defence, defendants must be responding to greater or equal levels of force being inflicted upon them or a threat of the immediate use of that force; they must also have used no more force than is reasonably necessary to stop the threat. The law varies between jurisdictions, but it generally follows along those lines. Being able to articulate why you felt threatened is vital to a successful self-defence claim. If the alleged victim brandished a weapon or attempted to assault you first, inform your attorney in detail. Minor factors like the alleged victim having an aggressive posture flared nostrils, and clenched fists may also help.

5. “What alternatives are available for jail time?” As over 90 per cent of defendants charged with crimes, defendants of assault charges may consider pleading guilty. Pleading guilty to a lesser charge or being offered deferred adjudication allows defendants to spend relatively little time in jail, and suffer relatively few consequences in the future. Sometimes, attending counselling or anger management classes may be a part of the deal; other times, the deal may stand on its own. In either event, defendants should not discount the possibility of taking a favourable deal if one is offered.

These questions are not a comprehensive list of discussion topics. When consulting your attorney after being charged with assault, you should ask as many questions as possible. Other questions may include possible sentences and the long-term ramifications of a conviction for the underlying charges.

Loft Conversions – An Alternative To Moving House When Space Is An Issue

In today’s financial climate, many are considering the potentials of Loft conversions North London. For many, the reason for moving is the need for additional space, although finding the right home in your desired location close to work and schools can be stressful and costly. The number of home sales is still falling even though house prices have fallen. Potential purchasers are worried that selling their home could leave them facing negative equity. Homeowners, landlords and property developers, especially in the North and East of London, are looking for alternative solutions that do not put a hole in their pockets.

Creating the additional accommodation required in your unused loft space provides a simpler and more cost-effective solution to moving. By converting a loft, you do not have to deal with estate agent’s fees, legal costs, stamp duty, or removal expenses. The loft conversion solution is an alternative to moving out. Most, if not all, of the residential land within London, has been built on. Hence, the construction of a new residential build is almost an impossibility. If this is at all possible then, more than likely it will cost in the millions of pounds to construct. Staying close or within the city of London has its benefits. When space becomes the biggest issue then moving up is an alternative to moving out.

A loft conversion allows a homeowner to utilize the unused space and turn it into additional living space. All properties can benefit from a loft extension whether they are a terrace, semi-detached, detached house, or bungalows. Loft conversions are an ideal way to increase the living area of your home without encroaching into your valuable garden space. Converting your loft offers the chance to gain extra space needed for extra bedrooms, bathrooms, study, or games room without the mayhem of moving. If there is a big enough space, you can even have an ensuite space to let for added revenue. Properly done loft conversions can also add to the value of your home of up to 20% of the property value.

Before you start your conversion, it is wise to consider many aspects such as obtaining planning permission, checking ownership rights or conditions of your property agreement, permitted development, project design, and considering your neighbours and community. There are several reputable companies doing loft conversions in London who can help you with all pre-requisite requirements as well as provide you with quality work.

With the cost of moving home running too many thousands of pounds or even millions, it is not surprising that many homeowners in London, especially the North & East, are exploring the potentials of converting their loft and are opting to move up, instead of moving on.

What Is The Best Bra?

According to reports, about 85% of women in American wear the wrong bra. Probably, mainly because to find the best bra for you, you need to test-fit many bras to get the correct one that fits you, that you like in terms of feel, you look sexy in, and you are confident you are wearing the right one. But because your body might change now and then and your breasts unilaterally alter themselves once a month, you would theoretically be wearing the wrong bra some days a month at least.

To complicate things some more, there is diet, pregnancy, breastfeeding, exercise and age that alters the breasts’ configurations. It is like the proverbial work of trying to find a needle in a haystack at night while blindfolded. It can be that complicated and long-haul because you should persevere trying on as many bras as you can in as many sources as you can get them. The catch here is that once you find the right bra, you might need to change it, at least in size, after a semester or so, as advised by professionals, due to the factors mentioned above.

Still, to cut a long-winded list of considerations shorter, you can ask the question directly: ‘What is the best bra?’ The answer is: no specific bra is the best. Not the branded bras, nor the unknown ones. Not the newfangled designs, nor the ancient styles. It depends on the shape of the breasts, the physique of the wearer, the purpose of the bra, the occasion or event it will wear in, the colour it comes and the preferences of the wearer. Quite a complex set of factors.

There are two primary considerations, however, that must be present in the best bra: it must be a perfect fit, and it must be the correct one for the occasion.

The best bra for you should make you look sexier and slimmer, and uplift your assets in several ways. It should help project your best look, because the bra is not only about the breast, but also about confidence, comfort, shape and poise. If you feel good about your bra you’d feel good all over, and that should show in the way you walk, stand, sit and interact with people. You would feel that everything is right with the world.

To find the best bra, first, you must get measured and fitted, preferably by a professional. Self-guessing will not enable you to explore the widest spectrum of choices, or at least not as fast. Try on all kinds of bra of your size, dipping and tucking yourself in, to determine which is most comfortable for you. Once you find your bra of preference, try it in other configurations: push up, balconette, deep-V, tee-shirt and so on. Think of the social occasions you would need one and find your bra for that event.

Remember that the best bra is not only the one you look good in; it must be the one you feel most comfortable and most confident in.

To see a wide range of selections quickly, Visit

A Multi Strategy Forex Trading Signals for GBP to USD

To get real advantage of the forex trading signals, a person ought to pick the best type of Forex system. A comprehensive knowledge within the market from the foreign currency is barely required if you are using the proper service available. It’s the software which does it all as well as assures a secure and protected trade system.

Automated Forex trading signals from a precise service might help any trader carry out uncomplicated trades, eradicate losses and make the most hard-earned cash using their trading accounts.

Nevertheless, nearly all traders hardly ever stick to the signals appropriately because they do not understand just how the entire potential of those signals or how they get the job done. Fortunately, you can avoid all difficulties as well as losses and log successful trades by concentrating on a particular currency pair.

The very best one, to begin with, maybe the GBP to USD pair since it is liquid, active plus predictable. The concentration on GBP and USD pair may be the uniqueness and benefit of Signals Machine.

Signals Machine comes with 3 unique market GBP and USD analysis methods:

Extreme Breakout: make use of the natural volatility from the GBP and USD for brief-term earnings.

Safe Reversal Point: conventional method constructed on the rational examination of countless verified market indicators.

Trend Correction Breakout: the workhorse technique which detects substantial return opportunities and produces pinpoint exact trading signals.

Additionally, Signals Machine is going to analyze the marketplace and let you know when it’s secure to trade. It can help to safeguard your bank account from outrageous market swings brought on by high-impact news releases.

Plus, this is the only Forex trading signals that are designed with voice notifications along with email notification concerning any trading options.

Utilizing a Forex signals service might help anyone attain goldmine from the Currency markets having a daily turnover of $136 billion and realize it’s correct money-making potential. And Signals Machine may be the right plan to make it fast.

Things You Should Know About Roofing ServicesAberdeen


Swap is significant for any material framework. It doesn’t make a difference how little or enormous your house is, different types of breaks take place because of rigorous climatic conditions or material’s mileage. The rooftop substitution includes adequate starting investments however, probably the best crisis roofers Aberdeen can spare your costs. This additionally comprises ample time since it needs numerous days, at times and even a long time for getting it done. While the level rooftop fixes Aberdeen is finished by the crisis roofers Aberdeen can make your life disorganized and agitated for quite a while. Overrated fixing impacts and defers the presentation and structure capacity of your structure with nonstop breaks just as different imperfections.

Mechanical Material

The matter of mechanical material is thriving rapidly. The explanation for that is the support and fix of the rooftops are very significant. On the off chance that you have a fine-looking house, it is important to focus on its upkeep now and again. You can have unexpected splits or breaks which might convert into more serious issues as it’s smarter to be prepared than lamenting later. While it comes to roofers, you can contract a business and mechanical Aberdeen Material Expert who gives total establishment services to a wide range of material frameworks including flat material, pitched material, sheeting, felting, scheduling and covering, waterproofing just as general support.

Material Task The executives

Material venture management consists of different plans that can be composed according to the customer’s necessities. Principally, one needs to demand an unpleasant gauge or a statement about how a venture resembles. Depending on the quality and amount of work, the roofers anticipate the course of events and spending plans to alter your rooftop’s appearance.

The staff of any Roofing Services Aberdeen supplier includes contractual workers who can deal with structure and design, bricklayers, handymen, window fixing, just as circuit testers. A lot of specialist organizations is there who are well-experienced just as have an enthusiastic group to give top-quality assistance which values efficient arrangements.

Complimentary Administrations

A great deal of Material Administrations Aberdeen offers corresponding administrations like electrical board establishment, fanlight windows, fixes and reclamation work, chimney fixes, and brickwork. You can peruse client audits just as peruse the roofers’services and afterwards pick which choice to decide for your home.

One purpose behind remaining with the rooftop is that if you need another solid tile rooftop, your present rooftop structure probably won’t bear the heaviness of those tiles. Along these lines, to put solid tiles on a rooftop, you may need to have the Aberdeen Material Pro collect the principal structure with the goal that it can support that additional weight and it costs certain cash.


If your house is as of now having a solid tile roof, then your home has among the broadest roofing materials guarantees and this can last as long as fifty years or more. Along these lines, you just need an expert private material help on the off chance that the solid tiles get harmed or the rooftop structure fizzles.

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