A Newbie’s Guide to Online Gambling

Sports betting is one of the most popular types of gambling on the face of the earth. The football games or boxing matches that you watch have become more exciting because you have staked your money on the player or team that you believe in. Nowadays, you do not have to physically visit a betting mm88 station just to place your bet. You can play poker, roulette, and even sports betting in the comfort of your own home if you have a computer and a reliable Internet connection. If you are a newbie in online casino and betting, you may be afraid to take the plunge on cyberspace gambling. To help ease your worries and to make your first online betting experience memorable, here are some pointers to follow.

Know the Rules

One of the most logical things that you can do to prevent any unfavourable experience in your first online gambling activity is to know the rules. On the Internet, everything is easy. But more often than not, there is a fine print that you have to understand before you agree and click on your mouse away. So before you spend a single cent, it is advisable to carefully read the terms of the game or betting play. Make sure that you fully understand the kind of bet you are taking and the overall mechanics of the game you are playing.

Focus on One Gambling Activity First

In online gambling, you can play several games at the same time. You can do sports betting while playing poker and slot machines simultaneously. As a result, there is also a bigger chance for you to lose money if you are not careful enough. If you are just starting to bet and gamble online, you should make it a point to concentrate on one activity first. If you are familiar with offline football betting, then it may be a good idea to choose online sports betting first before you wager money in poker games and roulette games.

Have Fun

Most gamblers end up feeling miserable because they are not having fun at what they are doing. What is the point of gambling if you are not enjoying yourself and having fun? Thus, take things lightly when playing an online casino or betting website and make sure that you are not squandering money that is supposed to go to your mortgage payment or the college fund of your kid.

Are you fond of online betting? If yes, then undoubtedly you might have heard about the most stunning free bets that are offered by bookies to attract their potential punters. Now, the question arises how to acquire these bets? Well, acquiring these bets is not an easy-going task as all of them are provided by the bookies according to their terms and conditions. Therefore, you must follow a preventive approach to acquire these free bets and that too without deploying any risk.

Pick a bookmaker. Just type in the phrase online bookies into various search engines and you are ready to find all of them.

Go to bookmaker’s website. It would be quite beneficial to visit bookies’ site through some promotional links. Usually, it is seen that most of the people visit the bookmakers’ website directly and then complain to be cheated as they found no free of charge bets there. But, basically, the principle that works with most of the online betting websites is that they have their cookie testing software that tells them whether the punter has been redirected to them through any promotional link or not. And thus, they offer a variety of free bets to them.

Go through the terms and conditions. Finding a bookmaker offering free bets is not enough in itself, you need to be more cautious if earning the profit through these bets is something that you are carving for.

Fill up the registration form. Once you have considered all the norms of the bookmaker wisely, it’s now time for you to get registered with it. However, it will be a prudent decision to see all the terms and conditions once again before you sign up with the bookie.

Deposit funds. Right after the registration, the bookmaker will require you to deposit the funds to place your no charge bet. Here, you must make sure that how much amount is required to attain the free bet. For instance, if it is 50 bucks, then just deposit this amount into your booking account so that you can get entitled for a free bet.

Get known to the requirements of the first bet. After depositing the amount, it’s time to check out which sort of bet you have to place to grab the free one. It is so because most of the bookmakers credit a free bet in your account only when your first bet is related to some certain events or sports.

When you are going to get bet for free? Now, this is the issue which requires some you to be conscious. After placing the first bet, make sure when the bookmaker is going to transfer a no charge bet into your account. Usually, most of the online betting websites wait for your first bet to be settled and then enable you to place a free bet.

Determine validity. Acquiring a no charge bet doesn’t mean you can use place it anytime whenever you desire. Generally, all the free bets are valid for a certain period and in most of the cases this time limit is thirty days only.

5 Important Questions To Ask Your Lawyer About An Assault Charge

Assault charges are common across the United States. According to the FBI’s Uniform Crime Reports, 2011 saw 751,131 aggravated assaults occur in the United States. This does not include a large number of defendants charged with simple assault. No matter how it is classified, assault is a violent crime and is treated seriously by the American legal system. If you are charged with assault, seek legal counsel as soon as possible. When discussing the situation with your attorney, make sure you ask 5 important questions.

1. “What am I being charged with?” Legally, “assault” is a broad term which is used differently across the country. Generally, the battery usually requires some type of harmful or offensive contact while assault only requires an action that would put a reasonable person in fear of harmful or offensive contact. However, some statutes use the term assault interchangeably with battery and an assault charge may be a battery charge.

The distinction can have a profound effect on the defendant’s legal strategy. That’s where the services of a legal team are invaluable. If the statutory elements required some level of contact, the defendant can argue that the contact was not so harmful or offensive that it met the statutory language; or he or she may claim that the contact was accidental. If the statute requires intentional actions that would make the victim fearful, the defendant may claim that his or her actions did not rise to a level which would cause that to occur. The precise language of the relevant assault statute will dictate the available defences.

2. “Am I being charged with a felony or a misdemeanour?” Many jurisdictions divide assault into different categories. Depending upon the circumstances and the relevant statute, the crime may qualify as either a misdemeanour or a felony. Typically, simple assault without any serious injuries or the use of weapons will qualify as a misdemeanour. An attack in which the perpetrator threatens to use or does use any type of instrument, or where they cause serious bodily injury will qualify as a felony.

If the alleged offence is being charged as a felony, it is sometimes possible to get the charges reduced to a misdemeanour as a result of a plea deal. This is particularly true with assault charges. Being convicted of a felony strips the convicted party of certain constitutional rights and entitles employers to discriminate against them for the rest of their natural life. While a defendant may not wish to plead guilty, avoiding a felony conviction should be a top priority.

3. “How strong is the prosecution’s case?” Assault charges often involve sparse evidence. In some cases, the officers only collected statements from each party involved and decided to arrest everyone involved and let the courts sort it out. Many witness statements to assault charges involve an incomplete perspective of the situation; for example, eyewitnesses present after the fight started usually cannot tell what precipitated the allegedly unlawful conduct, which can be the central issue if any affirmative defences are raised.

Statements made by the parties involved will usually place all of the blame on the other party. If the police decide to arrest everyone without collecting evidence, defendants stand a reasonably good chance of having any subsequent charges dismissed, as defendants may raise an affirmative defence or even deny committing the assault altogether. If the case hinges upon one biased witness or the statements of other witnesses who cannot be located, a defence attorney may be able to get the case dismissed.

4. “Should I use an affirmative defence?” Assaults are rarely unprovoked, occurring for no reason. If you committed the actions that the prosecution believes constitute the crime of assault as a result of feeling threatened by the alleged victim, ask your lawyer about it. Self-defence is a common and valid defence to assault charges. Consent is another defence to some assault charges in some situations.

To claim self-defence, defendants must be responding to greater or equal levels of force being inflicted upon them or a threat of the immediate use of that force; they must also have used no more force than is reasonably necessary to stop the threat. The law varies between jurisdictions, but it generally follows along those lines. Being able to articulate why you felt threatened is vital to a successful self-defence claim. If the alleged victim brandished a weapon or attempted to assault you first, inform your attorney in detail. Minor factors like the alleged victim having an aggressive posture flared nostrils, and clenched fists may also help.

5. “What alternatives are available for jail time?” As over 90 per cent of defendants charged with crimes, defendants of assault charges may consider pleading guilty. Pleading guilty to a lesser charge or being offered deferred adjudication allows defendants to spend relatively little time in jail, and suffer relatively few consequences in the future. Sometimes, attending counselling or anger management classes may be a part of the deal; other times, the deal may stand on its own. In either event, defendants should not discount the possibility of taking a favourable deal if one is offered.

These questions are not a comprehensive list of discussion topics. When consulting your attorney after being charged with assault, you should ask as many questions as possible. Other questions may include possible sentences and the long-term ramifications of a conviction for the underlying charges.

Basic Online Casino Tips for a Safe and Enjoyable Time

Playing to a high-standard at the online casino is rightly achievable if you’re willing to put in the time and effort to effectively learn the game strategies and rules. Having a fun and enjoyable time at the casino is certainly more likely if you know how to play the games effectively.

Here are several tips for having a more productive time at the online casinos:

Make sure to only play at the more reputable casinos: If looking to start playing at the online casinos, you want to make certain that you will only be playing at the most trusted and reputed sites. There is a wide range of established casinos online nowadays, so putting a little effort into searching for the right place to play blackjack, roulette, slots, craps, etc. shouldn’t be that difficult. Make a quick check to determine that a particular website has the required license to operate an internet-based casino GCLUB. Also, make sure that the company and contact details are visible on the website.

Understand the rules of play: Having the proper strategy and knowledge in place can go a long way to make sure an online gaming experience is more fun and exciting. Each of the casino games has different rules and regulations, from those that are simple to play to those that are highly complex. So, for whatever game you’re intending to play, it will greatly benefit if you’re able to learn to play the game to a high standard.

Check out the latest bonuses on offer: If signing up to a casino for the first time you are likely to be presented with a wide range of bonuses. Bonuses are likely to vary quite significantly from one casino to the next. Bonuses can vary in size or amount and also how they can be used once at the casino. It helps if you can read up on the terms and conditions that relate to the offer as some might require a specific action to be taken before being able to use the bonus. Also, you might want to check to see if and when these bonus amounts can be withdrawn from your online account.

Stay safe at the casino: If you are choosing to use a website which calls for you to enter your personal and financial information, you want to make certain that the website is safe and secure. A highly secure website will come with 128-bit encryption to keep data safe and secure at all times.

Get more information on the best casinos available to make sure you have a fun and enjoyable time when playing your favourite games.

How To Choose The Right PPC Agency?

Choosing the right PPC agency hull to handle your PPC account is very important if you want to have a successful campaign. Sometimes, this is a long and difficult process. However, do take your time to screen through some agencies before making your final decision.

There are a lot of PPC agencies out there for you to choose from. Each agency uses different tools and solutions to help fulfil its clients’ objectives. Before you can choose the right agency for your company, you need to know the things to look at when choosing a PPC agency:

1. Ask for case studies, references and clientele list. The PPC agency should have decent track records to show you. Although some of these data are confidential, they should be able to provide ballpark figures and percentages so that you can understand how efficient and capable the agency is.

2. What differentiates the agency from its competitors? A good PPC agency should be result-oriented and dedicated to their clients. There are so many PPC agencies out there and you should find one which offers something unique. The agency should not just treat you as “just another client”.

3. How are they charging for a PPC campaign? Find out all the different charges that the agency is going to bill you. How much are they charging for the set-up fee and account management fee? If the agency charges extremely high for the account management fee, you will need to ask them to justify the price. You should also find out if there are any hidden charges. Get all the pricing into writing and ensure that all pricing is transparent.

4. Find out how much they know about your business. A good PPC agency should be able to develop a PPC plan according to the client’s business and marketing objective. If the agency is just selling PPC as media buying, then you should look for another agency which focuses more on result and conversion.

These are 4 guidelines which you can follow to find the right PPC agency to handle your PPC accounts. After you talk to a particular agency, you should go to Google and type in the agency’s name to look at how they are perceived in the market.

Once you have found the right PPC agency, you need to work closely together with them to ensure your online marketing campaign run smoothly and successfully.

Cheow Yu Yuan is the co-founder of OOM, an online marketing agency which specializes in search marketing, providing services such as PPC Advertising.

Laser Eye Surgery

Just about everyone in this day and age has heard the term laser eye surgery mentioned in some form or another. However, even though high-tech eye surgery is talked about quite a bit, many people are not sure exactly what it is and what types of conditions it can correct. But, with eye surgery becoming more common, and an option for more and more people, it is important to gather some additional information about this corrective surgery for vision.

There is no doubt that when a certain age is reached, an individual’s eyesight begins to change and decline. With a very large portion of the population, thanks to the baby-boomer generation, now in their mid-forties and beyond, there is an ever-increasing interest in various types of corrective laser eye surgery cataratta padova. While there are many options, those in their 60s and 70s often are unsure if Lasik eye surgery in their golden years is a good idea.

The most common type of laser vision surgery is called Lasik eye surgery and it does have some aspects that set it apart from other types of surgery to correct vision problems. The main distinction is that the Lasik procedure does not require the doctor to cut the cornea surface. This means that there are generally few complications with this kind of eye surgery and the risks to the patient and their vision is also very low.

Many people these days are curious, and even fascinated, with the laser eye surgery procedures that are becoming so widely talked about and more and more often utilized to improve vision. One of the most important decisions that should be made when someone is thinking about having corrective eye surgery done is choosing the best Lasik eye doctor and the right laser eye surgery clinic where the procedure will be done

The word Lasik is the acronym for “Laser In-Situ Keratomileusis.” What that phrase means is that a ray of light is generated from a laser, providing the Lasik eye doctor with the ability to correct the internal functions of the eye while leaving the surface of the cornea unharmed. This laser eye surgery method is a great advancement over the traditional use of surgical scalpels for eye surgery, which often resulted in damage to the surface of the eye.

Laser eye surgery has become one of the most widely used and popular methods to correct vision problems. This corrective eye surgery is best suited for those who are near-sighted, who are far-sighted, and for those who have astigmatism, which are all vision conditions that affect a significant portion of the ageing, baby boomer population.

Lasik eye surgery can reshape the cornea of the eye, which is the outer layer, or covering. When this is done properly by the Lasik eye doctor, the light which passes through the cornea is better focused onto the retina at the back of the eye, which is essentially where the vision “signals” are interpreted.

In addition to being overwhelmingly effective, another advantage of this remarkable procedure is that the patient who undergoes the treatment experiences very little discomfort. Also, after the Lasik corrective eye surgery, the vision is noticeably improved almost instantly and there is no need to have the eyes bandaged, nor is there any need for stitches.

These factors all allow for a speedy recovery and a very low risk of infection and other complications, which were very common before the advent of laser eye surgery. The cost of a Lasik procedure is often covered, at least in part, by many of the better optical insurance plans. But for many people, the cost of Lasik, which typically runs from $2,000 to $2,500 per eye, is small compared to the benefits they enjoy through improved eyesight.

Best Betting Tips to Help You Make Money in Sports Betting

If you are looking for creative ways to make money, you can get into some risky but lucrative businesses such as sports betting สล็อตออนไลน์. Not only are they exciting, but these games can also make your money double or triple, depending on the types of bets you are engaging into and of course, depending on if you can get the best betting tips ufabet for the game.

Several sports allow betting and that includes the popular horseracing, football, boxing and many others. Of course, you have to keep in mind as well that not all states and countries allow sports betting. There may be limitations on some other countries in allowing sports betting UFABET สมัคร, thus before you engage in one, make sure that you have checked your local laws on this one to avoid trouble later.

What makes it easier for sports betting แทงบอลออนไลน์ ไม่มีขั้นต่ำ today, is the convenience and ease of online betting which of course, allows you to bet at the comforts of your own home.

Whether you are betting at home or you are going to the sports venue to bet, here are a few of the best betting tips แทงบอลออนไลน์ ไม่มีขั้นต่ำ that you might find helpful in making more wins than losses in betting.

– Have a strategy in mind. Like any venture, you can help reduce the risks in sports betting by having a strategy in mind. Of course, you have to stick with the strategy as well if you want it to work.

– Accept that losing is always part of betting เว็บแทงบอล. There is no clear-cut rule to winning in such a risky undertaking but of course, there are tips and strategies that can help you reduce the risks, and minimize the losses. Although losing is a part of sports betting, you can just strive to make losses minimal as compared to your winnings. That means you have to focus on your goal of maximizing winnings despite losses along the way.

– Learn and understand the many types of bets. One tip that can help you in your goals of maximizing winnings in sports betting is to learn the different types of bets, as you will find that different bets have different levels of risks, but also have different winnings. The higher the risk, the higher the winnings, so you can start from making a wise choice on the type of bet you want to invest your money in.

– Only bet an amount that you are willing to let go or lose. Of course, one of the best betting tips เว็บแทงบอล ไม่มีขั้นต่ำ that any sports betting enthusiast should always keep in mind is to put at risk a certain amount that you are willing to lose. Do not put all your money in the venture hoping to double it. You may end up with nothing. Remember that in gambling, you win some, you lose some and you may never know when you will lose. So make sure that you have a system that you follow, you are comfortable taking the risks to get higher winnings, and you know what you are doing as well.

Loft Conversions – An Alternative To Moving House When Space Is An Issue

In today’s financial climate, many are considering the potentials of Loft conversions North London. For many, the reason for moving is the need for additional space, although finding the right home in your desired location close to work and schools can be stressful and costly. The number of home sales is still falling even though house prices have fallen. Potential purchasers are worried that selling their home could leave them facing negative equity. Homeowners, landlords and property developers, especially in the North and East of London, are looking for alternative solutions that do not put a hole in their pockets.

Creating the additional accommodation required in your unused loft space provides a simpler and more cost-effective solution to moving. By converting a loft, you do not have to deal with estate agent’s fees, legal costs, stamp duty, or removal expenses. The loft conversion solution is an alternative to moving out. Most, if not all, of the residential land within London, has been built on. Hence, the construction of a new residential build is almost an impossibility. If this is at all possible then, more than likely it will cost in the millions of pounds to construct. Staying close or within the city of London has its benefits. When space becomes the biggest issue then moving up is an alternative to moving out.

A loft conversion allows a homeowner to utilize the unused space and turn it into additional living space. All properties can benefit from a loft extension whether they are a terrace, semi-detached, detached house, or bungalows. Loft conversions are an ideal way to increase the living area of your home without encroaching into your valuable garden space. Converting your loft offers the chance to gain extra space needed for extra bedrooms, bathrooms, study, or games room without the mayhem of moving. If there is a big enough space, you can even have an ensuite space to let for added revenue. Properly done loft conversions can also add to the value of your home of up to 20% of the property value.

Before you start your conversion, it is wise to consider many aspects such as obtaining planning permission, checking ownership rights or conditions of your property agreement, permitted development, project design, and considering your neighbours and community. There are several reputable companies doing loft conversions in London who can help you with all pre-requisite requirements as well as provide you with quality work.

With the cost of moving home running too many thousands of pounds or even millions, it is not surprising that many homeowners in London, especially the North & East, are exploring the potentials of converting their loft and are opting to move up, instead of moving on.

What Is The Best Bra?

According to reports, about 85% of women in American wear the wrong bra. Probably, mainly because to find the best bra for you, you need to test-fit many bras to get the correct one that fits you, that you like in terms of feel, you look sexy in, and you are confident you are wearing the right one. But because your body might change now and then and your breasts unilaterally alter themselves once a month, you would theoretically be wearing the wrong bra some days a month at least.

To complicate things some more, there is diet, pregnancy, breastfeeding, exercise and age that alters the breasts’ configurations. It is like the proverbial work of trying to find a needle in a haystack at night while blindfolded. It can be that complicated and long-haul because you should persevere trying on as many bras as you can in as many sources as you can get them. The catch here is that once you find the right bra, you might need to change it, at least in size, after a semester or so, as advised by professionals, due to the factors mentioned above.

Still, to cut a long-winded list of considerations shorter, you can ask the question directly: ‘What is the best bra?’ The answer is: no specific bra is the best. Not the branded bras, nor the unknown ones. Not the newfangled designs, nor the ancient styles. It depends on the shape of the breasts, the physique of the wearer, the purpose of the bra, the occasion or event it will wear in, the colour it comes and the preferences of the wearer. Quite a complex set of factors.

There are two primary considerations, however, that must be present in the best bra: it must be a perfect fit, and it must be the correct one for the occasion.

The best bra for you should make you look sexier and slimmer, and uplift your assets in several ways. It should help project your best look, because the bra is not only about the breast, but also about confidence, comfort, shape and poise. If you feel good about your bra you’d feel good all over, and that should show in the way you walk, stand, sit and interact with people. You would feel that everything is right with the world.

To find the best bra, first, you must get measured and fitted, preferably by a professional. Self-guessing will not enable you to explore the widest spectrum of choices, or at least not as fast. Try on all kinds of bra of your size, dipping and tucking yourself in, to determine which is most comfortable for you. Once you find your bra of preference, try it in other configurations: push up, balconette, deep-V, tee-shirt and so on. Think of the social occasions you would need one and find your bra for that event.

Remember that the best bra is not only the one you look good in; it must be the one you feel most comfortable and most confident in.

To see a wide range of selections quickly, Visit https://www.ucigallery.com

Measuring IPTV QOS (Quality Of Service)

IPTV QOS is a topic that has become a confusing issue for many businesses, let’s clear it up.

Quality Of Service, being something new often makes people automatically think of using pre-existing measurement techniques. This basic starting point for QOS measurement is where most of the confusion is generated.

In the same way that when companies began moving from Analogue to digital broadcast signals, the natural tendency of the existing engineers was to want to measure the new digital signal by converting it back to analogue and then using their existing equipment. Core IPTV QOS has caused a lot of the same methodology, whereby engineers with a network background want to measure network statistics, and engineers with a video background want to measure video statistics. The former (network engineers) can happily take their measurements from the existing network infrastructure, but get no feeling for what packets on the network relate to what video signals. The video people want to convert the IPTV signal back into its digital video format (converting it from IP to Video), which really misses the point that all you’re really finding out is how well the converting device works (a piece of test equipment won’t be comparable to the way an STB (set-top box) would decode the signal. Thus, you have two separate approaches to the same problem – neither of which is ideal.

Now, there IS a place for existing test equipment (network test equipment is great for data traffic as it always was, and Transport Stream (digital video) analysers are great at your Head-End (where the video content originates) in order to confirm that the video into your IP network was good), so it’s not time to throw it away, it’s just not the right tool for IPTV QOS.
With those comments out of the way, we can move forward (it’s difficult to move when you still have one foot in your old mindset).

Depending on who you are, you could very well be concerned with just one part of an IPTV system or the entire system, so we’ll break it into the core problem and what that means at each place in the network (we’ll assign the network 4 test points: 1) Head End 2) Core Network 3) Network Edge 4) Customer Home).

1) Head End.

This might concern you if you are responsible for creating, providing, or receiving video from a Head End.

A Head End can consist of anything from professional video encoders to VOD Servers (Video On Demand) and could be in one of many video formats, compression types, bitrates etc. They could be Unicast or Multicast, UDP, RTP or a proprietary mechanism (As in the case of MSTV).

Whatever the situation, it’s a good idea to take steps to ensure that the Head End is robust and that the video encoding devices are reliable. A problem at the Head End affects everyone down the line, right to the customer. (we’ll assume that various ‘redundant’ systems are in place to avoid this type of problem where possible)

Having built the Head End System with a robust architecture, the last thing (and the important one for us) is to monitor the Head End IP video flow output to ensure that this first point where the video is IP encapsulated has been done adequately and that the rest of the IPTV infrastructure can rely on this input.

Note: One common mistake at this point (and elsewhere) is to have some sort of round-robin system in place where not all of the video streams are measured at the same time – this should only be done if necessary as one of the ‘issues’ with the nature of IP delivery over a network is that impairments caused to the signal in the IP domain have a non-deterministic effect on the video flows. This means that while you’re looking at 5 of 100 flows, you could be having problems on some random number of other flows which you wouldn’t see – unless you monitor ALL flows simultaneously.

2) Core Network.

Hopefully the steps above will have been done, so if you’re concerned with the core network, your main work involves doing your own verification that the flows coming into your network are OK (you can’t rely on the Head End provider to do this for you, and it’s much easier to be able to get out of the spotlight when problems occur if you can easily confirm your input), and ensuring that the passage across the network doesn’t cause any loss or excessive jitter (the only 2 components that can stop the network getting your video to the end intact.

Now that we’re in the IP domain, this issue of packet loss is ultimately the number 1 thing to look out for (any IP packets lost WILL mean video content loss since all mechanisms insert video packets into IP packets for delivery, some even contain up to 7 video packets in one IP packet). However, with that said, every network device (and ultimately the STB) have buffers which means that excessive jitter can cause packet loss. Since we don’t want packet loss, this means jitter is just as important to us when monitoring our system.

The real kicker here is that if you’re from the old school of IP monitoring you’ll be pretty happy with what I’ve said so far – but there’s one thing which makes thing a little more ‘interesting’. It is perfectly possible to lose ‘media’ packets but NOT IP packets. Whenever an infrastructure includes elements like multiplexers which combine the MPEG video and ‘MUX’ several streams into one, if you’re not doing some form of ‘deep packet inspection’ (looking into the media headers to ensure the continuity counters are correct) you could have no IP packet loss, but still have video problems. This means that your solution cannot come from one approach or the other, but needs to do the monitoring in the IP domain while still confirming that the media packets are intact.

This additional complication is one of the things that many test equipment manufacturers haven’t accounted for, usually because this is still a fairly new field and many equipment vendors are focused on creating ‘features’ rather than addressing the customer problems to deliver benefits which give them the robust solutions required.

3) Network Edge.

As before, our first step is to confirm our input is good by monitoring all flows simultaneously for jitter and packet loss and then ensuring that the ‘last mile’ mechanism to the customer home is as robust as possible.

Since this step could easily involve conversion from IP to RF (cable companies us RF (Radio Frequency) signals instead of the copper or fibre cables that most network equipment uses, any test equipment may need an appropriate interface for this (the most common interface here is QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) of which there are 3 main types (they’re actually called ‘Annex’s’) Annex A, B, and C for US, Europe and Asia.

So depending on your infrastructure here, you may or may not have an IP network to the customer home.

4) Customer Home.

The final and some would say the most important part of the system.

As before, we need to check our input (the IP video flows that are about to go to the customers STB). Since we’re talking about IP, again this is all about the jitter and packet loss that has occurred to those video flows on their journey to this home. Since we checked the video quality as it was encoded at the head end, we know that as long as the jitter isn’t too much for the STB to cope with, and there’s no packet loss – the video will be exactly as it was when it was encoded.

If you’re wondering how to get around this – there are equipment vendors with devices that go IN the customer home and abstract the workload from the STB and even some that let the customer press a button to signal when THEY saw a problem (regardless of what your test equipment may or may not have indicated – who says you need to simulate a customer experience)

That’s true, but in real life, most companies don’t own, control or even have access to the entire system. This makes rolling out an IPTV deployment a bit of a nightmare unless you understand the issues and have the appropriate test equipment (remember, some people still have one foot in the network or video world of old).

When companies do have access to large parts of the system or are working with friendly companies that do, this headache can get a whole lot easier when the equipment being used can have its data fed into a central video monitoring system. This way, the 2 common problems of 1) Where is the problem 2) Is it an IP problem, are visible at a glance and much wasted time and effort just getting to the point where you even know where the problem is can be avoided.

When it comes to wanting to quantify the quality of the system, there are several standards for assessing IPTV, the most common are 1) V-Factor 2) MOS 3) MDI

1) V-Factor

V-Factor is a system that uses Moving Picture Quality Metrics (MPQM) research to try and simulate what a human would have decided the video quality was like.

This is an interesting method and is one way to approach the problem, but requires a lot of processing, cannot realistically be done across most of the network (since the processing work is heavy, this does not lend itself to ‘core’ or ‘head-end’ monitoring), so might serve as a useful measurement to integrate into STBs.

Since we’re looking at a holistic IPTV QOS approach, only a monitoring solution that gives us the big picture, as well as the detail, will do.

2) MOS (Mean Opinion Score)

Again, this metric is designed to try and give an approximation of what a human would see.

As with the V-Factor, it’s a cool idea and technically excellent but doesn’t tell us what is wrong with the system (it’s nice to have a quality ‘score’, but in reality, we need to know what to DO about a ‘poor’ score).

3) MDI (Media Delivery Index)

As the name suggests, we get a metric that tells us something about the delivery. (xx: yy, where xx equates to the cumulative jitter and yy, equates to packet loss) This time, rather than trying to analyse the video and ‘score’ it, we get data about the jitter and packet loss at the point being measured. While it might not study the decoded video signal, it does tell us how well the video has been delivered – which if you remember is the most important thing if it was encoded properly.

MDI is an appropriate metric at any point in the system and would let us know immediately if there was a delivery problem. Since the MDI values are based on the bitrates of the video streams, this also gives us some really useful information about how different streams will be affected by our network (for example, if we’re already running 50 SD (Standard Definition) Streams and we want to replace them with HD (High Definition) streams, a V-Factor or MOS score at some point in our network won’t tell us what to expect, whereas MDI metrics will let us know how much difference the network is likely to make. The jitter on the network will affect SD and HD stream differently (in fact, any streams with different bitrates will be differently affected by the jitter – this causes many problems), so having information about the way the jitter is affecting the IP delivery is REALLY useful information, that you just don’t get with the other measuring systems.

I hope you find this article useful and take the steps to ensure a reliable system before you get ‘deployment headaches’. Another article will follow shortly describing how to build a robust IPTV network.

Everything You Need To Know About Blood Tests, X-Rays And Injury Care

Not all wounds and medicinal issues have manifestations that are anything but difficult to analyze. Now and again the side effects are undetectable. To comprehend the sort of damage or affliction you are experiencing, doctors direct different kinds of analytic tests. Blood tests and X-beams are the two most normal tests that are done. Here is all that you have to think about these tests.

X-beams: A Lifesaver

X-beams is an imaging strategy that utilizations electromagnetic radiation to check what’s going on in your body without cutting it open. X-beams can be directed on all pieces of the body. In earnest care, you can anticipate that the specialist should arrange an X-beam if they presume that you may have a wrecked bone, or on the off chance that you are experiencing lung conditions or stomach related framework issues among others.

On the off chance that you are stressed over radiation presentation, there is no reason for concern. For whatever length of time that you don’t have X-beams as often as possible, you don’t get presented to high measurements of radiation. Thus, it doesn’t represent a significant wellbeing hazard.

The Importance of Blood Tests

Here and there, it is important to attract blood to get a total blood check. The test looks at your white platelets, red platelets, platelets, and the extent of red cells to plasma. Taking a gander at the outcomes, specialists can decide whether there is a basic issue. On the off chance that they discover something out of order, they may demand further tests to locate the accurate reason for your medical issue.

To take your blood, a phlebotomist will tie a tourniquet around your upper arm. You will be approached to make a clench hand with your hand to enable the vein to fly out. Utilizing a needle and syringe, the phlebotomist will draw the measure of blood required for the test. The tourniquet will at that point be evacuated and a clingy tape will be put on the cut injury, and you are finished.

Minor Injury Care

Pressing care manages minor cuts, wounds, slashes, scraped areas, minor cracks, tendonitis, sprains, minor consumes, contaminated injuries, and expelling remote objects. Because of the sort of damage, you may have an X-beam or a medical caretaker will clean, sterilize and dress your injury.

You may require a lockjaw shot, also, which the medical caretaker will give you. Contingent upon the measure of torment you are in, the specialist may recommend OTC painkillers. On the off chance that you have a dressing, you may need to come in regularly to get the dressing changed. The medical caretaker will give you tips on the most proficient method to think about your injury or damage at home.

The blood tests, X-beams and damage care gave by pressing consideration focuses expect to facilitate the weight on crisis rooms. Thus, if you have a non-hazardous wellbeing condition or damage that requires brief medicinal consideration, pressing consideration is the spot for you.

You can connect the medicinal services experts at Owl Now Urgent Care to get damage care, blood tests or X-beam for wellbeing conditions that are not perilous. You can be guaranteed of accepting compassionate and brief consideration. Likewise, look at our new page X-beams Blood Labs and Injury Care.

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